Finnish research aims for negative emissions
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland is developing combustion technologies for biomass, and the results are promising.
The first pilots were implemented, using wood pellets, at VTT’s Bioruukki research facility. The carbon capture technology is developed for Finnish power and heat production plants.
According to VTT, Finland is well on its way to achieving the 2020 climate goals. However, the goals for 2050 are impossible to attain without major changes in energy production and other industries.
VTT has calculated that Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) could cost-effectively cover a third of Finland’s share of reductions in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. More than 80 per cent of carbon capture measures would concern the burning or refining biomass, and the rest would concern the coal-intensive industry.
Biomass is a renewable natural fuel that binds carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as it grows. Carbon dioxide can be removed from the atmosphere, by capturing the carbon dioxide generated by burning of biomass and permanently storing it deep in bedrock.
Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) is a carbon capture technology suitable for new plants. CLC produces flue gas that consists of carbon dioxide and water vapour as a by-product. As there’s no nitrogen in the gas, carbon dioxide is easy to separate and capture, which is not the case in alternative technologies. Using CLC to burn biomass is a new research area, so the experiments conducted by VTT are pioneering on a global level.